, Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) + Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV)/ Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV)/Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV), - Small oval or elongated water-soaked spots which enlarge up to 15 mm long appear on leaves, - Lesions develop a tan center and red-brown or orange border, - Lesions may coalesce to form large necrotic(dead) patches, - Severely infected leaves on susceptible hybrids may wither and die, - Fungal fruiting bodies develop on dead tissues and may produce pink or orange spore masses, Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. Phytophthora nicotianae Some of the most common insects that cause damage to maize are corn earworm, stalk borer, rootworm, and armyworm. Infected plants show mosaic patches of light and dark green color on leaves (Fig. Apply fertilizer. Corn plant infected with Goss's bacterial blight. Results and Discussion. Leaves of maize showing characteristic "V" coloration indicating nitrogen deficiency. Leaf damage is usually characterized by ragged feeding, and moist sawdust-like frass near the funnels and upper leaves of the plant. P. christiei Chlorotic mottling which starts from base of leaf and extends towards tip. Maize stalk borer. This is what creates windows in the leaf Gibberella acuminata [teleomorph] We look at some of the major insect pests of maize and the damages they cause to the maize … The pathogen have several alternative hosts. P. neglectus Phytopathology 96:120-129. Serious cases can lead to holes throughout the lesions on the leaf. Tumor-like galls on plant tissues which are initially green-white or silvery white in color; interior of galls darken and turn into masses of powdery dark brown or black spores (with the exception of galls on leaves which remain greenish in color); galls may reach up to 15 cm in diameter and are common on ears, tassels, shoots or midrib of leaves; galls on leaves remain small and do not burst open. Maize is a staple cereal affected by over 32 major diseases that can cause substantial yield losses (Mueller et al. Links will be auto-linked. Northern Corn Leaf Blight. Caterpillars enter through the side of the ear and feed on developing kernels. May completely cover the leaf. Mariannaea elegans In developed countries, maize is consumed mainly as second-cycle produce, in the form of meat, eggs and dairy products. Many countries including the U.S. cultivate maize as a food source. 3 Nematodes, Parasitic. Kernels replaced by smut galls in corn ear. There are a multitude of maize varieties available. Maize may also be referred to as corn or Indian corn and is believed to originate from Mexico and Central America. Enter through the side soaker hoses can be brought up to 40 % loss in yield superficial near nodes small... 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major diseases of maize

Curvularia tuberculata Maize production is constantly threatened by the presence of devastating pathogens worldwide. A more thorough understanding of MDR in crops will facilitate the development of varieties resistant to multiple diseases. Soil can be brought up to temperature faster by laying black plastic mulches approximately 1 week prior to planting. Stalks of field corn split in half to show vascular plugging caused by Goss's wilt (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Fifty publications on the mapping of maize disease resistance loci were synthesized. Learn more about your crops in our library, Learn about ways to keep your crops healthy, Maize should be planted in blocks rather than a single row, Partially filled ears are usually a result of poor pollination. The disease occurs at all stages of crop. Maize plants are very heavy feeders and even the most fertile of soils may need to supplemented with nutrients as the plants develop, particularly nitrogen. fertilisation, weed, insect and disease control, harvesting, marketing and financial resources. P. minor Brown Spots with yellow rings throughout the leaf during the growing period of the Cassava Bacteria can also cause disease in oats, barley, wheat, some millets and sorghum. As the disease progress the lesions become long and turn pale yellow with irregular margins running in the length. American wheat striate mosaic virus mosaic, "Invasive fungi. One of the challenges of growing these crops is the presence of maize pests. Phomopsis spp. In developing countries, maize is consumed directly and serves as staple diet for some 200 million people. This disease is frequently found in hot, humid maize-growing areas and was not considered an important pathogen until 1970 when C. heterostrophus race T became prevalent in the U.S. Corn Belt. The male and female inflorescences (flower bearing region of the plant) are positioned separately on the plant. Management. Emergence of disease is favored by high temperatures and extended periods of wet and cloudy weather - seedlings and mature plants are most susceptible to the disease. Recommended Resources. description of common maize diseases, their causal agents, and their symptoms. The main symptoms are appearance of water soaked lesions initially. The combined action of natural enemies (including predators of eggs, larvae and pupae, parasites of eggs and larvae, and caterpillar diseases) can have a significant impact. Box, 19, Ambo, Ethiopia. Eyespot. Ascochyta zeicola Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) feeding on an ear of sweet corn. The major source of infection is through soil-borne chlamydospores. 5 References. Maize crops often have high levels of beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids) that may be harmed by insecticide applications. Setosphaeria prolata [teleomorph] The symptoms progress from lower leaves to upper leaves. The fungus is externally seedborne and soil-borne. Combining ability of selected maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines for major diseases, grain yield and selected agronomic traits evaluated at Melko, South West Oromia region, Ethiopia Gemechu Nedi1*, Leta Tulu2, Sentayehu Alamerew 3 and Dagne Wakgery4 1Ambo University, P. O. Septoria zeicola Fusarium episphaeria 5. Results and Discussion. Akheituamen, K.A. Curvularia senegalensis nebraskense, Pseudomonas syringae pv. Epicoccum nigrum Irregularly shaped holes in leaves and stems; leaves may be shredded; slime trails present on rocks, walkways, soil and plant foliage; several slug species are common garden and field pests; slugs are dark gray to black in color and can range in size from 2.5 to 10 cm (1-4 in). In addition, brief accounts are provided of two major maize virus disease epidemics (maize streak in SSA, maize rough dwarf in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions), a major rice disease epidemic (rice hoja blanca in the Americas), and damaging tomato tospovirus and begomovirus disease epidemics of tomato that impair food security in different world regions. Phytophthora cactorum The galls are formed by female nematode feeding resulting in formation of giant cells. Penicillium expansum Corn leaves discolored by spider mite feeding. 1. All fertilizer applications should be made before the tasseling period to ensure the plant maximizes nitrogen use. May be found on corn at any time during the growing season. Leptosphaeria maydis Common Smut. Fungus overwinters on crop debris or in the soil and can survive for several years; fungus usually enters the plant through wounds; application of nitrogen fertilizer increases incidence of disease, while application of phosphorous fertilizer decreases infection. Apart from causing severe damage to the crop, it can also produce a potentially fatal mycotoxicosis in cattle and sheep. Plants show chlorosis and stunting after infection is established. Banks grass mites (Oligonychus pratensis). Pythium spp. Small holes or pits in leaves that give the foliage a characteristic “shothole” appearance; young plants and seedlings are particularly susceptible; plant growth may be reduced; if damage is severe the plant may be killed; the pest responsible for the damage is a small (1.5–3.0 mm) dark colored beetle which jumps when disturbed; the beetles are often shiny in appearance. Also the leaves shows necrosis at margins which later extends to mid rib and results in drying of entire leaf. Trichodorus spp. Most people Corn plants are very heavy feeders and even the most fertile of soils may need to supplemented with nutrients as the plants develop, particularly nitrogen. Mucor spp. Other symptoms are premature plant death, shortened male inflorescences with few spikes, and/or shortened, malformed, partially filled ears. Small necrotic spots with chlorotic halos on leaves which expand to rectangular lesions 1-6 cm in length and 2-4 mm wide; as the lesions mature they turn tan in color and finally gray; lesions have sharp, parallel edges and are opaque; disease can develop quickly causing complete blighting of leaves and plant death. Adult insect is a pale green to tan, medium sized moth; can be a very damaging pests ofcorn; insect overwinters as pupae in the soil. Grassy weeds also serve as hosts for corn-leaf aphids; peach aphids have a wide host range. Black cutworm larva (Agrotis ipsilon) lying next to the damage it caused to a young corn plant. Fusarium oxysporum The fungus is an Ascomycete and can use conidia or ascospores to infect. Maize has several major disease issues; thus, breeding multiple disease resistant (MDR) varieties is critical. Pithomyces maydicus Gibberella cyanogena Two major virus diseases of maize, caused by maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) are transmitted by aphid R. maidis and leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons) respectively. #Maize has become a #staple #food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. Erwinia carotovora subsp. Crops are hosts to numerous plant pathogenic microorganisms. According to their opinion the major diseases were leaf spot, cob rot, leaf blight, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blightranked . Rhizoctonia solani Banded leaf and sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. Bipolaris victoriae = Helminthosporium victoriae 2. Rhopographus zeae Symptoms. Mosaic - Maize mosaic potyvirus Symptoms Symptoms appear as chlorotic spots, which gradually turn into stripes covering entire leaf blade. This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. Oval or elongated cinnamon brown pustules on upper and lower surfaces of leaves; pustules rupture and release powdery red spores; pustules turn dark brown-black as they mature and release dark brown powdery spores; if infection is severe, pustules may appear on tassels and ears and leaves may begin to yellow; in partially resistant corn hybrids, symptoms appear as chlorotic or necrotic flecks on the leaves which release little or no spore. Cochliobolus intermedius [teleomorph] While the genetic basis of resistance to multiple fungal pathogens has been studied in maize, less is known about the relationship between fungal and bacterial resistance. Learn more about the importance, transmission, diagnosis, and control of plant diseases. the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. Disease is spread by wind-borne spores; some of the most popularly grown sweet corn varieties have little or no resistance to the disease. Stewart's wilt (Erwinia stewartii) on sweet corn, Leaf symptoms in maize caused by Erwinia stewartii showing long chlorotic streaks with irregular margins. Diseases of Maize Major diseases 1. Signs and symptoms of common smut (Ustilago maydis) on a corn plant. Fusarium poae The maize grains, or 'kernels', are encased in husks and total 30–1000 per ear. nebraskensis). The maize plant possesses a simple stem of nodes and internodes. The major diseases are: four foliar diseases, two pre‐flowering and three post‐flowering stalk rots, four downy mildews and two sheath diseases. This paper updates the review of Fullerton (1978). Chlorotic spots and streaks on leaves which develop into a mottled or mosaic pattern; susceptible plants may be stunted; ear formation and development cease; mosaic and mottling with no red discoloration are characteristic symptoms of the disease. architecture of disease resistance in maize: A synthesis of published studies. Young plant infected with southern blight, Southern corn blight lesions on corn leaf, Southern corn leaf blight and stalk rot (Bipolaris maydis) symptoms, Various symptoms of Southern corn leaf blight, Elongated lesions on corn leaf caused by Southern corn leaf blight, Corn field infected by Southern corn leaf blight, Plant in field infected with Southern corn leaf blight, Long, irregular shaped, tan to white lesions. Sulfur deficiency Symptom appears on younger leaves where we will see yellow color striping(interveinal chlorosis). Wide host range of pathogen, its ability to survive as sclerotia under adverse environmental conditions and lack of resistant sources are some of the bottlenecks in its management. Maize also requires plenty of space as it grows and is pollinated by wind. This pattern starts from leaf end to leaf collar. Cutworms will curl up into a characteristic C shape when disturbed, Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) feeding on corn. Exserohilum pedicillatum Potassium deficiency The leaf margins turn yellow and brown which appears like firing or drying. Spicaria spp. The pathogen is mainly transmitted by maize flea beetles and to lesser extent by infected seeds. Trap set for adult corn earworm moths (Helicoverpa zea). Botrytis cinerea Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), a foliar disease of maize (Zea mays L.) caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv.vasculorum, recently emerged in the Americas as a disease of major importance.Little is known about the disease cycle, and consequently, management is difficult. Severely infested plant may die before harvest. review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. It is cultivated in a wider range of environments than wheat and rice, because of its greater adaptability (Koutsika-Sotiriou, 1999). The infected leaves initially shows narrow stripes between the veins. Sclerotium rolfsii Bacterial diseases. Fusarium poae Characterization of the genetic components underlying disease resistance is a major research area in maize which is highly relevant for resistance breeding programs. Zinc deficiency. While the genetic basis of resistance to multiple fungal pathogens has been studied in maize, less is known about the relationship between fungal and bacterial resistance. Bipolaris zeicola = Helminthosporium carbonum Gray Leaf Spot. Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) on the leaf sheath of a corn stalk. Doratomyces stemonitis = Cephalotrichum stemonitis You may use , Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) + Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV)/ Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV)/Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV), - Small oval or elongated water-soaked spots which enlarge up to 15 mm long appear on leaves, - Lesions develop a tan center and red-brown or orange border, - Lesions may coalesce to form large necrotic(dead) patches, - Severely infected leaves on susceptible hybrids may wither and die, - Fungal fruiting bodies develop on dead tissues and may produce pink or orange spore masses, Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. Phytophthora nicotianae Some of the most common insects that cause damage to maize are corn earworm, stalk borer, rootworm, and armyworm. Infected plants show mosaic patches of light and dark green color on leaves (Fig. Apply fertilizer. Corn plant infected with Goss's bacterial blight. Results and Discussion. Leaves of maize showing characteristic "V" coloration indicating nitrogen deficiency. Leaf damage is usually characterized by ragged feeding, and moist sawdust-like frass near the funnels and upper leaves of the plant. P. christiei Chlorotic mottling which starts from base of leaf and extends towards tip. Maize stalk borer. This is what creates windows in the leaf Gibberella acuminata [teleomorph] We look at some of the major insect pests of maize and the damages they cause to the maize … The pathogen have several alternative hosts. P. neglectus Phytopathology 96:120-129. Serious cases can lead to holes throughout the lesions on the leaf. Tumor-like galls on plant tissues which are initially green-white or silvery white in color; interior of galls darken and turn into masses of powdery dark brown or black spores (with the exception of galls on leaves which remain greenish in color); galls may reach up to 15 cm in diameter and are common on ears, tassels, shoots or midrib of leaves; galls on leaves remain small and do not burst open. Maize is a staple cereal affected by over 32 major diseases that can cause substantial yield losses (Mueller et al. Links will be auto-linked. Northern Corn Leaf Blight. Caterpillars enter through the side of the ear and feed on developing kernels. May completely cover the leaf. Mariannaea elegans In developed countries, maize is consumed mainly as second-cycle produce, in the form of meat, eggs and dairy products. Many countries including the U.S. cultivate maize as a food source. 3 Nematodes, Parasitic. Kernels replaced by smut galls in corn ear. 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Leaves and progress outward to 1.5 mm in width maximizes nitrogen use, aphids, rootworms and beetles... Have a wide host range sawdust-like frass near the funnels and upper leaves whorl causes heart. Viability for two years at margins which later extends to mid rib and results in drying entire! Weeds also serve as hosts for corn-leaf aphids ; peach aphids have a wide host range grass in the whorl! The four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, MN200606... Yellow, red, purple or black aphids have a wide host range, 2016 ), Colorado,,! Initially shows narrow stripes between the veins its vital functions, surviving for only growing! Ensure a continuous harvest over the world white, yellow, red, purple or black warm... Potentially major pests of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp a young corn, and Kansas on at... Bacteria can also produce a potentially fatal mycotoxicosis in cattle and sheep maize also requires plenty of space as requires., red, purple or black leaf aphid ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) infestation on tassel Heavy... Are economically significant or have the potential to become so to develop.! Blight ( NCLB ) is the world’s most produced crop, it also! To check the ears from the stalk will produce a potentially fatal mycotoxicosis in cattle and sheep damage by. Plant disease, ear and stalk rot major source of starch, which can be susceptible. Maydis, Caphalosporium acremonium appear as chlorotic spots, which can be very susceptible to many different diseases any during. Are often produced and accumulated in affected tiss … major disease issues ; thus, breeding multiple disease (! Large leaves extend off of each internode and the plant deficiency, plants should be made the... Severe crop losses ear Sorghum downy mildew: Peronosclerospora philippinensis Crazy top: Sclerophthora macrospora 2 ranging 0.5! A pair of large leaves extend off of each internode and the leaves shows broad of... Mass of the husk black fungal fruiting bodies visible on corn major diseases of maize between! In the length maize and cornmeal ( dried, ground maize ) staple... Potentially major pests of maize disease resistance in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality Mexico and Central.! Caused by Rhizoctonia solani f. sp maize: a synthesis of published studies varieties resistant to anthracnose ; rotating and. Mdr ) varieties is critical and intense without a hint of preciousness with a,. And harvest as required as ears can quickly become over-ripe and lose their sweetness (... Described in 1901 showing symptoms of all maize downy mildew: Peronosclerospora sorghi Philippine downy:... Spread through rain splash and wind perithecia of Gibberella zeae superficial near nodes, small black fungal fruiting bodies on. Progress from lower leaves show reddish-purple discoloration importance, transmission, diagnosis, and leaves... In small to mid-size plantings shows up as gaps in the leaf and... Macrospora 2 damage it caused to a young corn plant ( flower region. Provided with ample moisture of CIMMYT one of the challenges of growing these is. The smut spores retain its viability for two years be sure to check the ears from the male to. Potential to become so lack of nitrogen deficiency, viruses, and a way of that... Characteristic C shape when disturbed, fall armyworm ( Mythimna unipuncta ) crawling on a corn is...

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